Intensely cultivated in Langhe and Roero in the province of Cuneo, in Canavese and above all in the municipality of Carema in the province of Torino, as well as Biella, Vercelli and Novara. It is also present in the province of Asti. Outside the region is widely spread in Lower Aosta Valley, even more in Valtellina.
In Oltrepò the Nebbiolo grapes is present marginally, even if it was once more widespread. Oltrepò Pavese was called ancient Piedmont. In 1800, in fact, Oltrepò Pavese was an integral part of the Kingdom of Piedmont and the vine was spreadly cultivated, together with other local red grapes. Oltrepò Nebbiolo is the only Nebbiolo of Apennines.
Sprout: cottony, greenish-white with more or less intensely pink edges. Winged (1 to 3) apical leafelts (with pinkish, slightly cottony shades). Basal leaflets (4-5) bent, rigid, light yellowish green with more or less auburn shades, slightly fluffy. Adult leaf: small to medium large depending on clones, pentagonal or cuneiform, rarely full, often trilobated, but sometimes 5 or 7 lobes; petiole breast generally open or very open, U or lira shape; U upper lateral breasts, generally large and with a tooth; lateral breasts inferior with U shape or, in trilobate leaves, V. Narrow pronounced teeth (very pronounced in the Michet), straight or with one side concave margins and the other convex. The lower side has fluffy flap. Long pike. Bunch: medium, but most often medium-large or large, with wing, elongated, pyramidal; mid-length, robust peduncle. Grape: medium-small, short ellipsoid, with consistent, very pruinose skin, of blue-black color, sometimes slightly violet.
Sprouting: early (first decade of April).
Flowering: early (first decade of June).
Veraison: medium to early (second decade of August).
Grape ripening: late (second to third decade of October).
Vigor: high or very high, but may be moderate or moderate due to viral infections. Sprouts have long internodes and erect deportment; the development of secondary branches is abundant in some clones.
Fertility and production: fertility is average but very low in basal gems; productivity is medium to high, with great variability depending on the clone.
Cultivation and pruning: the most common cultivation system is the guyot, however higher than the other vines. Other traditional expanded forms are present, such as the pergola (lower Aosta valley, Carema and Ossola valley), or many kinds of cordons (Vercelli and Novara), the latter being abandoned in favor of a guyot. It always requires a long or mixed pruning.
Behavior to reproduction: good with the most commonly used rootstocks.
Susceptibility to adversity and phytopathy: Nebbiolo is sensitive to oidium and, in bad vintages, must be defended against the botrytis; Early sprouting makes it sometimes subject to damage caused by late frosts and the rapid growth of long sprouts may favor wind breakdown; long rains during the flowering period reduce production.